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Từ điển Oxford Advanced Learner 8th
run



run [run runs ran running] verb, noun BrE [rʌn] NAmE [rʌn]
verb (running, ranBrE [ræn] ; NAmE [ræn] run
 
MOVE FAST ON FOOT
1. intransitive to move using your legs, going faster than when you walk
Can you run as fast as Mike?
They turned and ran when they saw us coming.
She came running to meet us.
I had to run to catch the bus.
The dogs ran off as soon as we appeared.
He ran home in tears to his mother.  In spoken English run can be used with and plus another verb, instead of with to and the infinitive, especially to tell somebody to hurry and do something
Run and get your swimsuits, kids.
I ran and knocked on the nearest door.
2. transitive ~ sth to travel a particular distance by running
Who was the first person to run a mile in under four minutes?
see also mile
3. intransitive (sometimes go running)to run as a sport
She used to run when she was at college.
I often go running before work.  
 
RACE
4. intransitive, transitive to take part in a race
~ (in sth) He will be running in the 100 metres tonight.
There are only five horses running in the first race.
~ sth to run the marathon
Holmes ran a fine race to take the gold medal.
see also runner (1)
5. transitive, often passive ~ sth to make a race take place
The Derby will be run in spite of the bad weather.  
 
HURRY
6. intransitive + adv./prep. to hurry from one place to another
I've spent the whole day running around after the kids.
see also rat run  
 
MANAGE
7. transitive ~ sth to be in charge of a business, etc
to run a hotel/store/language school
He has no idea how to run a business.
Stop trying to run my life (= organize it) for me.
The shareholders want more say in how the company is run.
a badly run company
state-run industries
see also running n. (2
 
PROVIDE
8. transitive ~ sth to make a service, course of study, etc. available to people
Syn: organize
The college runs summer courses for foreign students.  
 
VEHICLE/MACHINE
9. transitive ~ sth (BrE)to own and use a vehicle or machine
I can't afford to run a car on my salary.
10. intransitive, transitive to operate or function; to make sth do this
Stan had the chainsaw running.
• (figurative) Her life had always run smoothly before.
~ on sth Our van runs on (= uses) diesel.
~ sth Could you run the engine for a moment?  
 
BUSES/TRAINS
11. intransitive (+ adv./prep.) to travel on a particular route
Buses to Oxford run every half-hour.
Trains between London and Brighton run throughout the day.
All the trains are running late (= are leaving later than planned).
12. transitive ~ sth (+ adv./prep.) to make buses, trains, etc. travel on a particular route
They run extra trains during the rush hour.  
 
DRIVE SB
13. transitive ~ sb + adv./prep. (informal)to drive sb to a place in a car
Shall I run you home?  
 
MOVE SOMEWHERE
14. intransitive + adv./prep. to move, especially quickly, in a particular direction
The car ran off the road into a ditch.
A shiver ran down my spine.
The sledge ran smoothly over the frozen snow.
The old tramlines are still there but now no trams run on them.
15. transitive ~ sth + adv./prep. to move sth in a particular direction
She ran her fingers nervously through her hair.
I ran my eyes over the page.  
 
LEAD/STRETCH
16. intransitive, transitive to lead or stretch from one place to another; to make sth do this
+ adv./prep. He had a scar running down his left cheek.
The road runs parallel to the river.
~ sth + adv./prep. We ran a cable from the lights to the stage.  
 
CONTINUE FOR TIME
17. intransitive ~ (for sth) to continue for a particular period of time without stopping
Her last musical ran for six months on Broadway.
This debate will run and run!
18. intransitive ~ (for sth) to operate or be valid for a particular period of time
The permit runs for three months.
The lease on my house only has a year left to run.  
 
HAPPEN
19. intransitive (usually used in the progressive tenses)to happen at the time mentioned
+ adv./prep. Programmes are running a few minutes behind schedule this evening.
The murderer was given three life sentences, to run concurrently.  
 
GUNS, DRUGS, ETC.
20. transitive ~ sth (+ adv./prep.) to bring or take sth into a country illegally and secretly
Syn: smuggle
He used to run guns across the border.
see also runner  
 
OF STORY/ARGUMENT
21. intransitive, transitive to have particular words, contents, etc
Their argument ran something like this…
+ speech ‘Ten shot dead by gunmen,’ ran the newspaper headline.  
 
LIQUID
22. intransitive + adv./prep. to flow
The tears ran down her cheeks.
Water was running all over the bathroom floor.
23. transitive to make liquid flow
~ sth (into sth) She ran hot water into the bucket.
to run the hot tap (= to turn it so that water flows from it)
~ sth for sb I'll run a bath for you.
~ sb sth I'll run you a bath.
24. intransitive to send out a liquid
Who left the tap running?
Your nose is running (= ↑mucus is flowing from it).
The smoke makes my eyes run.
25. intransitive (usually used in the progressive tenses)~ with sth to be covered with a liquid
His face was running with sweat.
The bathroom floor was running with water.  
 
OF COLOUR
26. intransitive if the colour runs in a piece of clothing when it gets wet, it dissolves and may come out of the clothing into other things
The colour ran and made all my underwear pink.  
 
MELT
27. intransitive (of a solid substance)to melt
The wax began to run.
see also runny  
 
BE/BECOME
28. intransitive + adj. to become different in a particular way, especially a bad way
The river ran dry (= stopped flowing) during the drought.
Supplies are running low.
We've run short of milk.
You've got your rivals running scared.
29. intransitive ~ at sth to be at or near a particular level
Inflation was running at 26%.  
 
OF NEWSPAPER/MAGAZINE
30. transitive ~ sth to print and publish an item or a story
On advice from their lawyers they decided not to run the story.  
 
A TEST/CHECK
31. transitive ~ a test/check (on sth) to do a test/check on sth
The doctors decided to run some more tests on the blood samples.  
 
IN ELECTION
32. intransitive to be a candidate in an election for a political position, especially in the US
Bush ran a second time in 2004.
~ for sb/sth to run for president
~ in sth to run in the election
compare stand v. (16
 
OF TIGHTS/STOCKINGS
33. intransitive (NAmE)if ↑tights or ↑stockings run, a long thin hole appears in them
Syn: ladder
Rem: Most idioms containing run are at the entries for the nouns and adjectives in the idioms, for example run riot is at riot.
more at a close run thing at close 2 adv., hit the ground running at hit v.
Verb forms:

Word Origin:
Old English rinnan, irnan (verb), of Germanic origin, probably reinforced in Middle English by Old Norse rinna, renna. The current form with -u- in the present tense is first recorded in the 16th cent.

Thesaurus:
run verb
1. I, T
He ran to catch the bus.
sprint • • tear • • charge • • jog • • bound • • pound • • trot • • gallop • • stampede • |written race
run/sprint/charge/jog/bound/pound/trot/gallop/race towards sb/sth
run/sprint/charge/bound/pound/trot/gallop/race after sb/sth
run/sprint/tear/bound/pound/trot/gallop/race along (sth)
run/sprint/bound/race away
2. T
She ran a small business for many years.
manage • • control • • be in charge • • be responsible for sb/sth • • administer • • direct
run/manage/control a/an company/business/organization
run/manage/control/be in charge of/be responsible for/administer/direct a project
run/manage/be responsible for/administer a service
Run or manage? Managing a business, department, etc. means making decisions about how it should operate and organizing other employees. Run emphasizes organizing the necessary tasks.
3. T, I
Could you run the engine for a moment?
Stan had the chainsaw running.
operate • • control • |especially spoken work • • go • |formal function • • manipulate
run/operate/control/work a machine
run/operate/control a/an engine/motor
run/operate machinery
run/operate/work/function efficiently/reliably/smoothly/normally
Run, operate or control? A person operates or runs a machine; machines are often controlled by the controls, such as a computer, knob or lever.
4. I
The buses run every ten minutes.
go • • come • • travel
run/go/come/travel from/to sth
5. I
Tears ran down her cheeks.
flow • • pour • • stream • • gush • • circulate • • trickle • |written cascade
run/flow/pour/stream/gush/trickle out of sth
run/flow/pour/stream/gush/cascade/trickle down (sth)
water runs/flows/pours/streams/gushes/circulates/trickles/cascades
blood runs/flows/pours/streams/gushes/circulates/trickles

Example Bank:
He hopes to run for president in 2016.
He just wanted to run away and hide.
He ran headlong into an enemy patrol.
He ran out of the house.
He ran unsuccessfully for the Senate in New York.
He was given two twelve-month sentences to run concurrently.
In many respects his poetical development had run parallel to Wordsworth's.
John can run very fast.
Local buses run regularly to and from the school.
Our car only runs on unleaded petrol.
She ran quickly downstairs.
She turned and ran blindly down the street.
Stop trying to run my life for me.
The engine was running very smoothly.
The group is run independently of college authorities.
The programme will be jointly run with NASA in the US.
The railway line runs right past the house.
The road and the canal run parallel to each other.
The road runs alongside the canal.
The school is jointly run with the local parish.
The train was running late, as usual.
The two experiments are run in parallel.
Things ran very smoothly for a while.
We soon had the sound system up and running.
(in stories) Sharon ran as fast as her legs could carry her.
Alan was running for a bus when he slipped on some ice.
Billy turned the corner and ran headlong into Mrs Bradley.
Don't run away! I only want to talk to you!
He claimed that 95 per cent of trains run on time.
He tried to run the restaurant himself, but soon got into financial difficulties.
I like to go running in the mornings before work.
I ran four miles today.
I've spent the whole day running around after the kids.
It is a small, privately run hotel.
Our van runs on diesel.
Quick— run for it!
Run after her and tell her she's forgotten her bag.
She ran quickly up the stairs.
Terrified, he ran all the way home.
The ball hit the hole and ran past.
The boy went running off to get the ball.
The buses run every thirty minutes.
The college runs several English classes for adults.
The course teaches some of the skills you need to set up and run a business.
The office had never been so well run.
The old tramlines are still there but no trams run on them now.
The sledge ran smoothly over the snow.
They ran a series of lectures on the subject.
They've seen us! Run for your life!
Try to run round the block a few times every morning.
Volunteer counsellors run a 24-hour helpline.
What applications were you running when the problem occurred?
When does the London Underground stop running at night?
Which operating system have you got running?
Who is running the event?
Your nose is running.
Idioms:come running common, general, ordinary, usual run give get the run of something give somebody a run for their money on the run run for it up and running
Derived:run across somebody run after somebody run along run around with somebody run at somebody run away run away from something run away with something run away with you run back over something run down run into somebody run into something run off run off with somebody run off with something run on run on something run out run out on somebody run over run over something run somebody down run somebody in run somebody out run somebody over run somebody through run something by somebody run something down run something in run something into somebody run something off run something past somebody run something up run through something run to something run up against something run with somebody run with something
 
noun  
 
ON FOOT
1. countable an act of running; a period of time spent running or the distance that sb runs
I go for a run every morning.
a five-mile run
Catching sight of her he broke into a run (= started running).
I decided to make a run for it (= to escape by running).
She took the stairs at a run.
see also fun run  
 
TRIP
2. countable a trip by car, plane, boat, etc, especially a short one or one that is made regularly
They took the car out for a run.
see also milk run, ↑rat run, ↑school run: (BrE)This ferry operates on the Dover-Calais run.  
 
OF SUCCESS/FAILURE
3. countable a period of sth good or bad happening; a series of successes or failures
Syn: spell
a run of good/bad luck
Liverpool lost to Leeds, ending an unbeaten run of 18 games.  
 
OF PLAY/MOVIE
4. countable a series of performances of a play or film/movie
The show had a record-breaking run in the London theatre.  
 
OF PRODUCT
5. countable the amount of a product that a company decides to make at one time
The first print run of 6 000 copies sold out.  
 
MONEY
6. countable, usually singular ~ on the dollar, pound, etc. a situation when many people sell dollars, etc. and the value of the money falls  
 
SUDDEN DEMAND
7. countable, usually singular ~ on sth a situation when many people suddenly want to buy sth
a run on the band's latest CD  
 
MONEY
8. countable, usually singular ~ on a bank a situation when many people suddenly want to take their money out of a bank  
 
WAY THINGS HAPPEN
9. singular the ~ of sth the way things usually happen; the way things seem to be happening on a particular occasion
In the normal run of things the only exercise he gets is climbing in and out of taxis.
• (BrE)Wise scored in the 15th minute against the run of play (= although the other team had seemed more likely to score).  
 
IN SPORTS
10. countable a sloping track used in ↑skiing and some other sports
a ski/toboggan, etc. run
11. countable a point scored in the game of ↑cricket or ↑baseball
Our team won by four runs.
see also home run  
 
IN ELECTION
12. singular (NAmE)an act of trying to get elected to public office
He made an unsuccessful run for governor in 2008.  
 
FOR ANIMALS/BIRDS
13. countable (often in compounds)a confined area in which animals or birds are kept as pets or on a farm
a chicken run  
 
IN MUSIC
14. countable a series of notes sung or played quickly up or down the ↑scale  
 
IN CARD GAMES
15. countable a series of cards held by one player  
 
IN TIGHTS/STOCKINGS
16. countable (NAmE) = ladder  
 
ILLNESS
17. the runsplural (informal) = diarrhoea
see also dry run, ↑dummy run, ↑trial run
more at in the long run at long adj., in the short run at short adj.

Word Origin:
Old English rinnan, irnan (verb), of Germanic origin, probably reinforced in Middle English by Old Norse rinna, renna. The current form with -u- in the present tense is first recorded in the 16th cent.

Example Bank:
He's only made four home runs all season.
I usually eat breakfast on the run.
I'm going on a fun run tomorrow.
In the normal run of things the only exercise he gets is climbing in and out of taxis.
Let's go for a run before dinner.
Manchester United have finally ended their run of victories.
Our team is on 90 runs.
Senator Blake's run for the presidency
She took the stairs at a run.
She was very different from the general run of American movie stars.
Spurs have had a winning run of ten games.
The Ethiopian is aiming to produce his second record-breaking run of the week.
The local council has organized a two-mile fun run for charity.
The play had a long run in the West End.
The prisoners have now been on the run for three days.
The show has had its run extended till March.
They play began its run last June.
They've got another run!
Villa scored in the 15th minute against the run of play.
We went for a run in his new car.
When he saw me he broke into a run.
a print run of 20 000
a run of good/bad luck
The show is enjoying a record-breaking run at the Shaftesbury Theatre.

 
See also:run with somebody

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