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Từ điển Oxford Advanced Learner 8th

firm [firm firms firmed firming firmer firmest] noun, adjective, adverb, verb BrE [fɜːm] NAmE [fɜːrm]
a business or company
an engineering firm
a firm of accountants

Word Origin:
adj. and adv. v. Middle English Old French ferme Latin firmus n. late 16th cent. Spanish Italian firma medieval Latin Latin firmare ‘fix, settle’ late Latin ‘confirm by signature’ firmus ‘firm’ farm

firm noun C
an engineering firm
company • • business • • partnership • • house • • practice • • corporation • • operation • |informal outfit • |business, journalism enterprise
a family firm/company/business/partnership/… house/practice/operation/enterprise
manage a/an firm/company/business/partnership/… house/corporation/operation/outfit/enterprise
work for/join/leave/resign from a/an firm/company/business/partnership/… house/practice/corporation
Firm or company? Firm is often used to talk about a small, fairly specialized organization, especially one that sells professional advice or services
•a law/consulting/insurance firm
• a firm of accountants
Firm is also often used about companies that have been operating for a long time or companies run by a family. Company is much wider in range.

Running a business
buy/acquire/own/sell a company/firm/franchise
set up/establish/ start/start up/launch a business/company
run/operate a business/company/franchise
head/run a firm/department/team
make/secure/win/block a deal
expand/grow/build the business
boost/increase investment/spending/sales/turnover/earnings/exports/trade
increase/expand production/output/sales
boost/maximize production/productivity/efficiency/income/revenue/profit/profitability
achieve/maintain/sustain growth/profitability
cut/reduce/bring down/lower/slash costs/prices
announce/impose/make cuts/cutbacks
Sales and marketing
break into/enter/capture/dominate the market
gain/grab/take/win/boost/lose market share
find/build/create a market for sth
start/launch an advertising/a marketing campaign
develop/launch/promote a product/website
create/generate demand for your product
attract/get/retain/help customers/clients
drive/generate/boost/increase demand/sales
beat/keep ahead of/out-think/outperform the competition
meet/reach/exceed/miss sales targets
draw up/set/present/agree/approve a budget
keep to/balance/cut/reduce/slash the budget
be/come in below/under/over/within budget
generate income/revenue/profit/funds/business
fund/finance a campaign/a venture/an expansion/spending/a deficit
provide/raise/allocate capital/funds
attract/encourage investment/investors
recover/recoup costs/losses/an investment
get/obtain/offer sb/grant sb credit/a loan
apply for/raise/secure/arrange/provide finance
lose business/trade/customers/sales/revenue
accumulate/accrue/incur/run up debts
suffer/sustain enormous/heavy/serious losses
face cuts/a deficit/redundancy/bankruptcy
file for/ (NAmE) enter/avoid/escape bankruptcy
(BrE) go into administration/liquidation
liquidate/wind up a company
survive/weather a recession/downturn
propose/seek/block/oppose a merger
launch/make/accept/defeat a takeover bid

Example Bank:
Local firms are finding it difficult to compete in the international market.
She hired a firm of private detectives to follow him.
She set up her own software firm.
The firm employs 85 000 people around the world.
The firm was taken over by a multinational consultancy.
The well-established firm closed down with the loss of 600 jobs.
They are likely to merge with a bigger firm.
US firms operating in China
a firm called Data Inc., based in Chicago
a firm specializing in high-tech products
start-up firms in the booming computer market
the decision to close down the firm
the different departments within the firm
He got a job with a London engineering firm.
I'm working for a firm of accountants.
a firm of accountants/consultants/lawyers/solicitors
a/an engineering/law/consulting/insurance/security firm
a/an old/long-established/old-fashioned/reputable/renowned firm
a/the family firm
his father's firm
the city's oldest and most prestigious law firm
Idioms:firm hand hold firm on firm ground stand fast take a firm line
Derived Word:firmness
Derived:firm up firm up something
adjective (firm·er, firm·est)
1. fairly hard; not easy to press into a different shape
a firm bed/mattress
These peaches are still firm.
It was good to feel the firm ground underfoot after hours of trudging through flooded fields.
Bake the cakes until they are firm to the touch.
2. not likely to change
a firm believer in socialism
a firm agreement/date/decision/offer/promise
firm beliefs/conclusions/convictions/principles
She is a firm favourite with the children.
We have no firm evidence to support the case.
They remained firm friends.
3. strongly fixed in place
Syn: secure
Stand the fish tank on a firm base.
No building can stand without firm foundations, and neither can a marriage.
4. (of sb's voice or hand movements)strong and steady
‘No,’ she repeated, her voice firmer this time.
With a firm grip on my hand, he pulled me away.
She took a firm hold of my arm.
Her handshake was cool and firm.
5. (of sb's behaviour, position or understanding of sth)strong and in control
to exercise firm control/discipline/leadership
Parents must be firm with their children.
The company now has a firm footing in the marketplace.
This book will give your students a firm grasp of English grammar.
We need to keep a firm grip on the situation.
6. usually before noun ~ (against sth) (of a country's money, etc.)not lower than another
The euro remained firm against the dollar, but fell against the yen.
see also firmly

Word Origin:
adj. and adv. v. Middle English Old French ferme Latin firmus n. late 16th cent. Spanish Italian firma medieval Latin Latin firmare ‘fix, settle’ late Latin ‘confirm by signature’ firmus ‘firm’ farm

firm adj.
1. (approving)
four large tomatoes, ripe but firm
hard • • solid • • stiff • • rigid
Opp: soft
a firm/hard/solid surface
firm/hard ground
Firm or hard? Hard things are harder than firm things. Hard can mean ‘very hard’ or ‘too hard’
•Diamonds are the hardest known mineral.
• a hard mattress
Firm is always a positive word: a hard mattress is a bad thing, but a firm mattress is good.
Stand the fish tank on a firm base.
secure • • steady • • stable
Opp: unstable
a firm/secure/steady/stable foundation
a firm/secure/stable base

Example Bank:
I have always been quite firm with my children.
Jo held firm: nothing else would do.
Use extra stuffing to make the cushions firmer.
We stand firm on these principles.
exercises to keep your muscles firm
At the age of 87 he is still a firm believer in socialism.
Close the hatches with a firm push on the lever.
Further research is needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn.
He handshake was cool and firm.
He put a hand on her shoulder, which was firm and slender.
Her employees regarded her as firm but fair.
It was good to feel the firm ground underfoot.
Many of the teachers feel that firmer discipline is needed in the school.
No firm agreement was reached.
No firm date has yet been set for the launch.
People are looking towards him for firm leadership.
Planking was placed between the rails to provide a firm footing for the horses.
The authorities took firm action to end the violence.
They remained firm friends.
four large tomatoes, ripe but firm


Word Origin:
adj. and adv. v. Middle English Old French ferme Latin firmus n. late 16th cent. Spanish Italian firma medieval Latin Latin firmare ‘fix, settle’ late Latin ‘confirm by signature’ firmus ‘firm’ farm
1. transitive ~ sth to make sth become stronger or harder
Firm the soil around the plant.
This product claims to firm your body in six weeks.
2. intransitive ~ (to/at…) (finance) (of shares, prices, etc.)to become steady or rise steadily
Rank's shares firmed 3p to 696p.
Verb forms:

Word Origin:
adj. and adv. v. Middle English Old French ferme Latin firmus n. late 16th cent. Spanish Italian firma medieval Latin Latin firmare ‘fix, settle’ late Latin ‘confirm by signature’ firmus ‘firm’ farm

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